Hormones of the adrenal cortex and their functions

The paired organ of a small size and weighing about 13 grams, the adrenal gland, refers to the glands of internal secretion. The glands are located, respectively, on the right and left kidneys. These irreplaceable "helpers" play a major role in the normal functioning of the nervous system and the health of the whole organism.

Areas of the adrenal cortex and their hormones

Anatomically, this organ consists of two components (cerebral and cortical substance), which are controlled by the central nervous system. Hormones of the adrenal cortex and their effect on adaptation of the organism to stressful situations, control of its sexual characteristics can not be underestimated. The lack or excess of secreted secret poses a threat to health and even human life. The adrenal cortex is divided into three areas:

Hormones of the mesh cortex of the adrenal cortex

This site got its name because of its appearance in the form of a porous mesh formed of filaments of epithelial tissue. The main hormone of the reticulum of the adrenal gland is androstenedione, which is interrelated with testosterone and estrogen. By its nature, it is much weaker than testosterone and is the main male secret in the female body. From its degree depends the formation and development of secondary sexual characteristics. Reduction or increase in the amount of androstenedione in the female body leads to the development of a number of endocrine diseases:

Similar in its effect dehydroepiandrosterone, which produces the lower cover, takes an active part in protein production. With its help, athletes increase muscle capacity.

Hormones of the bumed zone of the adrenal cortex

Hormones of the adrenal cortex of steroid nature are synthesized by the beam zone of this organ. These include cortisone and cortisol . These glucocorticoids take an active part in many metabolic processes:

Hormones of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex - their functions

The adrenal cortex produces hormones that regulate the water-electrolyte balance. They are known as mineralocorticoids and are synthesized in the glomerular region. The main product of this group is aldosterone, the function of which is to increase the inverse absorption of liquid and sodium from the cavities and decrease the level of potassium in the kidneys, which balances the ratio of these two active minerals. A high level of aldosterone is one of the indicators of the development of a steady increase in blood pressure.

Hormones of the adrenal cortex - tests

To diagnose some diseases or pathological dysfunction of the endocrine, genitourinary and nervous system, doctors prescribe tests for the biolevel in the blood of the hormones of the adrenal cortex. Laboratory testing helps to identify the causes of violations in the systemic work of organs in the following cases:

Reduced secretion of hormones in the adrenal cortex is often the case with allergies of different etiology and skin diseases. With a tendency of the female body to premature termination of pregnancy, a study is conducted on the level of dehydroepiandrosterone. Increase or decrease in the amount of cortisol and aldosterone is an indicator of serious pathologies. Differential diagnosis can be carried out only by an experienced endocrinologist. It will not be superfluous to consult a gynecologist.

Basic rules for research:

  1. The fence of venous blood in the patient is spent in the morning.
  2. It is forbidden to eat and drink before starting the procedure.

Regulation of secretion of hormones of the adrenal cortex

The development of a certain number of steroids is controlled by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. Adrenocorticotropic hormone activates the formation of hormones by the adrenal cortex. An increased level of glucocorticoids provokes a decrease in the production of ACTH by the hypothalamus. In medicine, this process was called "feedback." Sex hormones of the adrenal cortex (androgens) are synthesized under the influence of ACTH and LH (luteinizing hormone). Reducing secretion leads to a delay in sexual development. The hormonal balance of the organism directly depends on the well-coordinated work:

Preparations of hormones of the adrenal cortex

Some systemic diseases or severe inflammatory processes can not be cured without the use of hormonal drugs. Clinically proven their main role in the treatment of diseases of rheumatic, allergic and infectious origin. Synthetic hormone of the adrenal cortex is a model of a natural substance and is prescribed in a number of cases as a substitution therapy or as a powerful anti-inflammatory drug.

The most famous in medical practice are the following medicines:

The pharmaceutical industry produces various forms of these drugs for local and general use. Long-term therapy with hormonal drugs is very rare and only in cases of extreme necessity due to the possibility of occurrence of "withdrawal syndrome" and pronounced side effects. The admission of such drugs requires strict control of narrow-profile specialists.