The main components of all food are proteins, carbohydrates and fats. For their processing, the organs of the gastrointestinal tract secrete digestive enzymes capable of splitting and converting the components of products into substances, vitamins and amino acids necessary for the body.
Basic enzymes of the digestive system
For the treatment of each food element, the following enzyme groups exist:
- Carbohydrases. Are intended for hydrolysis of carbohydrates, for example, sugars and starch up to a glucose level.
- Proteases. Isolated for the cleavage of protein compounds to amino acids and short peptides.
- Lipases. Lipids are processed, resulting in the formation of fatty acids, glycerin.
- Nuclease. Used to digest nucleic acids until nucleotides are obtained.
Enzymes of the digestive tract are isolated in several sections, starting with the oral cavity, where the salivary glands produce ptyalin (alpha-amylase), which is necessary for the cleavage of high molecular weight starch.
Pepsin and gelatinase are produced in the stomach. The first said enzyme is intended for processing proteins to the level of peptides, the second promotes the digestion of collagen fibers and gelatin contained in meat.
The main body responsible for normal digestion is the pancreas. It identifies the following enzymes:
- steupsin (cleaves fats);
- trypsin, carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin, elastases for digesting proteins and elastin;
- nuclease - helps the processing of nucleic acids;
- lipase - affects triglycerides (fats), which were previously emulsified with bile in the intestine;
- amylase for the treatment of glycogen, starches, other carbohydrates.
In the small intestine, the process of digesting food continues with the help of such enzyme compounds:
- enteropeptidza, alanine aminopeptidase for the transformation of trypsinogens and peptides formed after the action of proteases of the pancreas and stomach;
- substances that disaggregate disaccharides to the state of monosaccharides (maltase, lactase, sucrose, isomaltase);
- erepsin for processing proteins;
- intestinal lipase, helps to digest the remaining fats (triglycerides).
Also, digestive enzymes are produced by microorganisms that live in the large intestine. In particular, E. coli and lactobacilli contribute to the degradation of lactose to lactic acid.
Preparations of digestive enzymes
Some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with a deficit in the production of the chemicals in question. Symptoms of lack of digestive enzymes cause a lot of inconveniences in the form of pain syndrome, heartburn, nausea with vomiting, flatulence , bloating and stool disorders. To eliminate such clinical manifestations, you need to take such medications:
- Creon ;
- Mezim Forte;
- Gastenorm Forte;
- Panzim Forte;
- Digestal Forte;
- Normoenzyme Forte;
There are digestive enzymes of vegetable origin, usually based on extracts of rice fungus papain:
Inhibitors of digestive enzymes
The opposite pathological condition, the excess production of the described substances for digestion, requires the oppression of their production. For this, the so-called antiferment preparations are used that reduce the intensity of the pancreas and suppress the activity of enzymes:
- aminocaproic acid;