The female uterus is the central organ of the reproductive system. It is the birth of a new life, the development and maturation of the fetus. The uterus, together with the appendages, constitutes a unique complex that regulates the work of other organs and systems of the body, determines the overall well-being of the woman.
How is the womb made?
The internal structure of the female uterus is unique. With the onset of the period of puberty, the body undergoes cyclic changes monthly. According to the histological structure, the organ contains three types of tissue:
- The top layer is the perimeter. It covers the organ from the outside, preventing it from injury.
- The middle layer is the myometrium. It is represented by bundles of muscle and connective fibers, which are highly elastic. This property explains the possibility of a genital organ to increase significantly in size during the period of gestation. Physiologists say that myometrium fibers are the strongest in the female body with muscles capable of withstanding heavy loads.
- The inner layer is endometrial (functional). Directly this layer plays a major role in pregnancy - it is introduced into it and a fetal egg grows in it. If pregnancy does not occur, endometrial cells begin to die and leave the uterus cavity along with the menstrual period.
Where is the woman's womb?
It should be noted that the reproductive organs of women, the uterus, in particular, have some mobility. Given this, the topography of the body may vary slightly and depends on the specific life stage (childbirth, pregnancy). Normally the uterus is located in the cavity of the small pelvis, between the rectum and the bladder. It is slightly tilted forward, and on both sides on its sides support ligaments that prevent the organ from lowering, providing mobility of the organ.
Thanks to the ligamentous apparatus, the female uterus is able to slightly change its location. So, with the bladder full, the organ deviates back, and when the rectum is filled, go forward. A significant change in the location of the uterus is observed when the fetus is born. The growth of the embryo leads not only to an increase in the volume of the genital organ, but also causes it to go beyond the cavity of the small pelvis.
How does the womb look like?
Having examined briefly the structure of the uterus in women, it should be noted that the organ itself looks like an inverted pear. In the structure of the body it is customary to allocate:
At the bottom is the upper part of the organ, convex, located above the line of confluence in the uterus of the fallopian tubes. The body has a conical shape, is the middle most part of the organ. The lower part of the uterus - the neck - is divided into 2 divisions: the vaginal part - it protrudes into the vaginal cavity, and the supra-vaginal - the upper portion located above the vaginal cavity. At the place of transition of the body into the neck there is a constriction, which is called the isthmus. The vaginal part has a hole in the cervical canal.
Functions of the uterus
The main function of the uterus is reproductive. This body is continuously associated with the process of procreation. Directly in it, a small organism develops from two sex cells. In addition, there are a number of other functions that the uterus performs:
- Protective. The organ is a barrier to the spread of pathogenic microorganisms, viruses from the vagina to the appendages.
- Cleansing - monthly, along with monthly self-cleaning of the cervical canal, the vagina with menstrual flow.
- Participation in the process of fertilization - is the link in the way of spermatozoa from the vaginal cavity to the fallopian tube.
- Participates in the implantation process.
- Strengthens the pelvic floor along with its own ligamentous apparatus.
Uterus of woman - dimensions
It should be noted that such a parameter as the size of the female uterus has a special diagnostic value. So, to increase the volume of the body, the doctor can make the first assumptions about pathology or pregnancy already at the first stage of the examination, without the use of equipment. The size of the uterus can vary and depends on several factors:
- presence of pathologies and diseases of the reproductive system;
- presence of pregnancy and childbirth;
- the age of the woman.
Normal size of the uterus of a nulliparous woman
Diagnosis of diseases of the uterus, the establishment of the size of the body is carried out using ultrasound. This hardware method helps to accurately determine the structural changes in the organ, to establish the exact location of its location. The size of the uterus is normal for a woman who does not have children, the following:
- length - 7-8 cm;
- the maximum width is 5 cm;
- weight - about 50 g.
Dimensions of the uterus at different stages of pregnancy
Pregnancy is a complex and lengthy process, accompanied by growth and development of the fetus. Directly increasing the size of the future baby and causes the growth of the uterus, its volume. In this case, structural changes in the composition of the organ walls are observed: not only the qualitative but also quantitative increase in muscle fibers occurs. In this case, the female uterus increases throughout the period of pregnancy.
In the first weeks of gestation, the genital organ retains its pear-shaped form, practically does not change its size, since the embryo is still small. However, by the second month the organ acquires a rounded shape, and the size of the uterus during pregnancy has increased several times by this time. The mass of the uterus itself increases, and by the end of the gestation period it reaches almost 1 kg! At each examination of a pregnant woman, the doctor sets the height of the standing of the uterine fundus. The change in this parameter for the weeks of pregnancy is indicated in the table below.
Dimensions of the uterus after childbirth
After delivery, the female uterus begins to gradually recover. It decreases in size, its weight decreases. This process takes an average of 6-8 weeks. The process is proceeding at a rapid pace. So, by the end of the first week, on the 6-7th day after birth, the uterus weighs about 500-600 g, and already on the 10th day after the appearance of the baby to the light - 300-400 g. Normally at the end of the third week the body weighs 200 in
It should be noted that the process of involution has an individual character. Diagnosing the size of the uterus for ultrasound, the norm of which is given below, doctors draw conclusions regarding the speed of recovery of the reproductive system. Defining factors in this case doctors call:
- degree of uterine dilatation in case of polyhydramnios ;
- multiple pregnancies ;
- body weight of the fetus during pregnancy.
The size of the uterus in menopause
Menopause - the period of termination of menstrual flow, accompanied by functional and structural changes in the uterus. The hormonal system produces less sex hormones, because of which the endometrium ceases to ripen, new cells are no longer formed. This leads to a decrease in the size and size of the genital organ. This is confirmed by the smaller size of the uterus on ultrasound.
So, in the first 5 years from the beginning of the climacteric period, according to observations of specialists, the volume of the female uterus is reduced by 35%. In this case, by 1-2 cm, its size decreases in length and width. The decrease in the size of the genital organ stops after 20-25 years from the moment of onset of menopause (by 70-80 years). By this time the organ has a length of only 3-4 cm.
Diseases of the uterus - list
Diseases of the uterus in women can occur at any age. However, according to the observations of doctors, often the triggering mechanism for their development are hormonal changes in the body. This confirms the high frequency of development of pathologies of the reproductive system during puberty, after childbirth and during menopause. Most pathologies of the uterus are inflammatory and infectious processes in the genital organ. Among the common diseases of this body can be identified:
- Inflammatory processes: metritis, endometritis , adnexitis.
- Pathologies of the uterine neck: erosion , ectopia, dysplasia, cervical cancer.
- Acute conditions associated with the uterus: ectopic pregnancy , ovarian apoplexy, spontaneous abortion.
- Tumor processes: myoma, fibroma.
Congenital pathologies of the uterus
Diseases of the uterus that arise at the stage of embryonic development of the reproductive system, the laying of the genital organs, were called congenital. Among the frequent pathologies of this genus it is necessary to note the following:
- Double-horned uterus - is formed as a result of not merging parts of the Müllerian channels. In this case, the following types of pathology are distinguished:
- Saddle - the case when only the bottom of the body is divided.
- Uterus with incomplete or full septum - the shape does not change externally, however, a septum appears in the cavity, partially or completely dividing it.
- A separate body with a common neck is formed when the Müllerian fusions merge into the cervical region.
- Doubling of the uterus - not only the body of the uterus is divided, but also the neck.
Infectious diseases of the uterus
Infectious female diseases of the uterus are the most common type of pathology of this organ. They can arise at the banal non-observance of the rules of intimate hygiene. Often, the spread of an infectious agent occurs during sexual contact, so women of reproductive age are more likely to suffer from diseases. Pathology is almost always accompanied by a change in the microflora, so there is an additional symptomatology that allows to identify a violation (itching, burning in the perineal region, hyperemia). Among the most common infections in women are:
- gardnerellez ;
- genital herpes ;
- the virus of papilloma.
Oncological diseases of the uterus
Female diseases of the uterus, accompanied by tumor-like processes, stand apart from all pathologies of the reproductive system. In most cases, a provoking factor for their development are chronic inflammatory and infectious processes, hormonal disorders. The complexity of diagnosing these pathologies is the absence of an obvious clinical picture, sluggish, latent flow. Often, the tumor is detected by accidental examination. Among possible tumor-like diseases of the uterus, it is necessary to distinguish:
Omission of the female womb
With age, female genitalia, the uterus can change their location. Often in older women, there is a decrease in the uterus caused by a ligamentous apparatus disorder and age-related changes. In most cases, the organ is displaced downwards, in the direction of the vagina. The disease is accompanied by a specific symptomatology:
- feeling of pressure;
- discomfort in the groin;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- upset urination (rapid, urinary incontinence).
The danger of pathology is the possibility of complications of the prolapse of the uterus from the vagina. This situation requires emergency medical care, so when you have the first symptoms you need to see a doctor. Treatment consists in surgical restoration of the integrity of the ligament apparatus of the pelvic floor, suturing the muscles of the vagina.
Removal of the female uterus
Removal of the childbearing organ is referred to by doctors as a hysterectomy. This radical method of treatment is used for diseases that are not amenable to treatment, the presence of which can adversely affect the general condition of women. As evidence for hysterectomy, doctors identify the following violations:
- uterine fibroids with a size greater than 12 weeks;
- rapid growth of myomatous nodes;
- malignant polyps;
- necrosis of myoma nodes;
- suspicion of oncology;
- cancer of the body or cervix.
Women preparing for such an operation are often interested in the question of what consequences after removal of the uterus may occur. In most cases, such patients need constant maintenance hormone replacement therapy. With proper operation, compliance with prescriptions and instructions of doctors, the negative consequences after removal of the uterus are minimized.