Parents often have to take their children to a polyclinic to take a general blood test to control hemoglobin. Some of them hear a diagnosis in the pediatrician's office - anemia. This is the name of the pathological condition, in which the concentration of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells are reduced in a unit of blood volume.
The types and causes of anemia
Hemolytic anemia in children is called a group of diseases characterized by increased destruction of red blood cells, which is caused by the incompatibility of the blood group of the mother and fetus, certain medications, infections, burns. There is also aplastic anemia in children - these are rare pathologies of the blood system, in which the production of bone marrow cells decreases.
Deficiency anemia in children is called a condition in which an inadequate amount of substances necessary for the formation of hemoglobin enters the body. Separate iron deficiency and vitamin-deficiency anemia. With the last form of the disease, the children's body lacks vitamins B6, B12, folic acid, which is what causes pathology.
The most common is iron deficiency anemia in children, associated with a violation of iron metabolism in the body.
Hypochromic anemia in children occurs as a result of a violation of hemoglobin synthesis, which is why iron utilization is impossible.
One of the causes of anemia in children is malnutrition or iron deficiency in food (for example, late feeding, artificial feeding). The appearance of anemia can lead to dysbacteriosis, gastritis, food allergies, diseases of internal organs. In addition, the shortage of hemoglobin in a child is facilitated by the pathological conditions of expectant mothers in the period of gestation: multiple pregnancies, violation of uteroplacental blood circulation, prematurity.
What is the risk of anemia in children?
Hemoglobin consists of a globin - a protein molecule and a heme molecule, containing an iron atom that combines with oxygen in the lungs and circulates it throughout the body. Therefore, the lack of this substance leads to hypoxia, a decrease in immunity, and in severe forms - to a delay in mental development.
Symptoms of anemia in children
Children of the first year of life with iron deficiency refuse to eat. Their skin becomes dry and rough, hair and nails brittle. Signs of anemia in children include pallor of the skin, palpitations, shortness of breath - all this is a consequence of hypoxia. There are complaints of headache, tinnitus. There is rapid fatigue and weakness. At aplastic anemia there is increased bleeding. Jaundice skin color, enlarged spleen and liver are characteristic for hemolytic anemia.
Treatment of anemia in children
When anemia is detected, the cause that caused the disease is first eliminated. Hemolytic anemia shows hormone therapy. Severe forms of aplastic anemia require bone marrow transplantation.
With iron deficiency anemia, it is mandatory to take medications containing this element. At present, their assortment is quite wide, for example, activiferin, maltofer, ferronal, heferol, sorbifer durules. Babies under 2 years of age are usually given a remedy in a liquid form. Children older are prescribed a medicine in the form of capsules or tablets. Dosage is prescribed by the doctor taking into account the age of the patient. In addition, a special diet is introduced, which contributes to the enhancement of iron absorption (meat, vegetables and fruits).
Prevention of anemia in children consists in treating iron deficiency in a future mother, feeding the baby with breast milk or adapted mixtures with elevated iron content, playing sports, walking outdoors.