What is pancreatitis and what are the dangers of this insidious disease? Every year, up to 800 cases per 1000000 people are registered in the world. Poor nutrition, alcohol abuse, high levels of stress - all this has damaging effects on the pancreas.
What is pancreatitis and how dangerous is it?
Pancreatitis is a group of diseases with a certain symptomatology and characteristic syndromes. In translation from dr.-greek πάγκρεας - pancreas + lat. -itis - inflammation of the pancreas. There are several forms of the disease, and each carries a potential threat to human life. To understand what pancreatitis is, and whether it is dangerous, it is important to consider what functional load the pancreas carries.
Functions of the body:
- Exocrine or external secretory function. The production of digestive enzymes: trypsin, chemotripsin, amylase and pancreatic lipase. Enzymes neutralize acidic gastric juice and are needed for the cleavage of food, proteins, fats and carbohydrates that come with food.
- Humoral function. Regulation of the volume of glandular pancreatic juice in the amount in which the maximum absorption of substances takes place.
- Endocrine function. The islets of Langerhans, located in numerous inclusions between the pancreas lobules, produce hormones antagonists: glucagon and insulin, regulating carbohydrate metabolism. Glucagon provokes an increase in glucose in the blood, insulin - a decrease.
Acute pancreatitis - what is it?
After abundant feasts during the holidays and the abuse of alcohol, heavy food, a large number of people will learn what is acute pancreatitis is not hearsay. The disease is on the third place among other ailments of the abdominal cavity, giving the palm to the cholecystitis and appendicitis. Men are prone to inflammation more often than women. For acute pancreatitis is characterized by high mortality - up to 15% of all cases.
Etiology of acute pancreatitis:
- systematic use of alcohol;
- harmful food addiction (salty, fatty, spicy, sweet);
- some genetic diseases (cystic fibrosis);
- long-term use of drugs that have a toxic effect on the pancreas (hormones, thiazide diuretics);
- inflammatory processes of the digestive system;
- viral and bacterial infections (parotitis, mycoplasma ).
During the development of the acute process, the basic functions of the gland are violated: enzymes and hormones, which were normally produced inactive form (activation took place in the digestive tract), suddenly begin to activate directly in the pancreatic itself, triggering the process of digestion of the gland tissues. Develop swelling and inflammation.
What is chronic pancreatitis?
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammation of the pancreas. The process is accompanied by insufficient secretion of enzymes, irreversible changes in the parenchyma of the organ, wrinkling and proliferation of fibrous tissue. Exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis occurs against the background of stresses, with nervous tension.
Causes of the disease:
- Gastrointestinal diseases;
- hepatitis B and C, typhoid fever , parotitis;
- atherosclerosis ;
- helminthic invasions;
- intoxication with harmful substances, poor-quality food;
- alcoholism .
Parenchymal pancreatitis - what is it?
In the glandular lobules of the parenchyma (pancreatic tissue) secretion of hormones and enzymes occurs, so if a question arises: what is parenchymal pancreatitis - it can be answered that this is the most common chronic pancreatic disease. The processes occurring in parenchymatous pancreatitis:
- violation of the patency of the ducts, due to edema;
- decreased insulin synthesis;
- pathological changes in the digestive system;
- when the parenchyma is affected by 80% - the development of diabetes mellitus .
Reactive pancreatitis - what is it?
For the first time faced with the disease, a person has many questions: what is reactive pancreatitis, is the illness dangerous for life and how to cure it? Reactive pancreatitis is an acute condition. Among specialists it is considered to be the easiest form, amenable to correction. Most often occurs against the background of diseases of the stomach, liver and gallbladder, intestines. An important factor provoking the emergence of reactive pancreatitis is overeating and eating fatty foods.
Psevdotumorozny pancreatitis - what is it?
This type of organ pathology is commonly called a pseudo-tumor process, since the processes occurring in the gland are similar to oncology. Psevdotumorozny pancreatitis of the pancreas according to statistics is found in every 10th case, among those infected with pancreatitis, more often in men. The main cause of the disease are long-term alcohol intoxication.
What is biliary pancreatitis?
Pancreas - inflammation of it with biliary pancreatitis, occurs in close connection with diseases of the liver and gallbladder. Studies of such patients have shown that in 60% of cases of cholelithiasis, the concomitant disease is chronic biliary pancreatitis. Causes of the disease:
- infections of the biliary tract along the lymphatic pathways spread to the pancreas;
- the transfer of bile into the pancreatic ducts causes damage to the tissues and ducts of the gland.
Here's what biliary pancreatitis is in symptoms:
- severe pain like colic;
- icteric sclera;
- liquid gray stool.
Complications arising from the disease:
- acute liver failure;
- gastrointestinal bleeding;
- pancreatic necrosis.
Calculous pancreatitis - what is it?
Calculous pancreatitis is another type of disease in which the pancreas is inflamed. Pancreatitis occurs mainly after 50 years on the background of a change in the composition of the gland juice, calcium salts are starting to accumulate in it, forming in a small size porous calculi. Symptoms of the disease:
- pain in the right hypochondrium or shingles;
- frothy feces;
- severe sweating;
- increased acidity of the stomach;
- abrupt weight loss.
Necrosis of the pancreas - what is it?
An exacerbation of pancreatitis can eventually lead to a serious pathological process of pancreatic necrosis, in which the gland deforms with subsequent tissue death. In 70% of cases, it is diagnosed in patients who have abused alcohol, the other causes are the same that cause acute and chronic pancreatitis. Symptoms of pancreatic necrosis:
- strong, intolerable pain;
- vomiting a fountain that does not bring relief;
- cyanotic spots in the sides (Gray-Turner symptom);
- pain during palpation.
Inflammation of the pancreas - symptoms
Symptomatics and signs of pancreatic inflammation in the acute phase depend on the degree of severity:
- Light form. The defeat of the pancreas and digestive tract is negligible. During the diagnosis, interstitial edema is observed. Dyspeptic symptoms (bloating, heartburn). Pain syndrome moderate: localized in epigastrium, in the left hypochondrium. The nature of pain is shrouded, with irradiation in the back. Jaundice sclera.
- Heavy form. Signs of pancreatitis: severe pain, worse in the position of the patient on the back. Nausea, vomiting of bile. Heat.
Complications in severe form of acute pancreatitis, increasing lethality:
- pancreatic necrosis with infection of peripancreatic gland tissues;
- pancreatic abscess (pus accumulates in the pancreas and nearby organs).
Chronic processes occurring in the pancreas, in contrast to acute processes - often take place sluggishly and asymptomatically until a certain time, while internal changes are very serious, can trigger the onset of diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis symptoms during an exacerbation, to which it is important to pay attention:
- the pain of a paroxysmal girdle of varying intensity from weak to strong;
- reflux esophagitis - due to weakening of the lower sphincter of the esophagus, the gastric contents return to the esophagus, which is accompanied by a belching, heartburn;
- frequent diarrhea with fetid odor;
- sharp weight loss;
- occurrence of angiomas on the skin.
Inflammation of the pancreas - treatment
After a thorough diagnosis and confirmation of the diagnosis, the doctor's first task is to tell the patient: what is pancreatitis, what possible complications of the disease can be. Treatment is selected taking into account the individual and age characteristics of the patient. How to treat pancreatitis, depends on several factors:
- acute or chronic process;
- presence of concomitant diseases;
- individual drug tolerance.
How to relieve pancreatic inflammation?
Who at least once experienced pain with inflammation of the pancreas, know what pancreatitis is. The attack of pancreatitis is very painful and exhausting patient. It is not recommended to remove inflammation on its own, but there are cases when medical care is not available, and it is important to do something to alleviate the condition. First aid for pancreatitis:
- rest and no sudden movements, take the embryo posture;
- ice on the hypochondrium;
- intake of water in small portions every half hour (when drinking vomit, 2-3 parts of a spoon are drunk);
- Take a tablet of Drotaverine hydrochloride, as an option to do an injection of No-shpy 0.8 mg.
Treatment of chronic pancreatitis
Treatment of pancreatic inflammation in the home can lead to irreparable consequences. During an exacerbation of a chronic pancreatitis treatment is carried out in a hospital. One of the important conditions for improving the patient's condition is a gentle diet in pancreatitis. Treatment of the chronic process includes a complex of drugs:
- broad-spectrum antibiotics (Ampicillin, Gentamicin) with concomitant infections;
- antihistamine (Dimedrol, Suprastin) - a mild sedative and hypnotic effect;
- antispasmodics (No-sppa, Papaverina hydrochloride) - relax and reduce pressure in the ducts of the gland;
- antiferment preparations (Gordoks, Katrikal) - suppress the activity of enzymes of trypsin, chemotripsin and amylase;
- analgesics (Analgin, Baralgin );
- cytostatics (cyclophosphamide) with pseudotumorous pancreatitis.
What can you eat with pancreatitis?
Diet in pancreatic pancreatitis is the key to successful treatment and the abatement of inflammatory processes within two weeks. The menu for pancreatitis is based on useful and sparing, light and ground food. Recommended foods and dishes for pancreatitis:
- casseroles without oil;
- steamed meatballs made of low-fat meat and fish;
- stewed vegetables on the water;
- mashed potatoes;
- porridge (rice, oats, buckwheat);
- low-fat kefir;
- compotes of dried fruits;
- jellied berries;
- baked apples;
- stale wheat bread.