In the modern world, the sexual orientation of people often becomes a cause of scandal, as people began to openly admit that they are "not like everyone else". It will be interesting to know what kinds of orientations are, what is considered the norm, and what is the deviation, and how its formation takes place.
What is sexual orientation?
Sexuality includes four main components: gender, gender identity, social gender role and sexual orientation. Under the last component is understood more or less constant emotional, sexual and sensual attraction of a person to other individuals of a particular sex. There may be a sexual orientation of heterere, homo-, bi-and other species. None of them is considered a mental illness or disorder. A person can recognize or deny one's orientation.
Types of sexual orientation
Many believe that there are only three main types of orientation, but this is not so and there are many more. The list of sexual orientations is constantly replenished and in an example it is possible to result such kinds:
- Asexuals . People who do not feel sexual desire, though they can appreciate the attractiveness of others.
- Sapioexuals . One of the strangest types of orientation, as people feel excited by the intellectual abilities of the partner. By the way, there are more women among sapiosexuals than men.
- Panseksualy . Signs of sexual orientation in women and men - the attraction to people of any gender and even transgender people. Panseksualov are more interested in the personal qualities of the object and the emotions that he experiences when communicating. For them, spiritual proximity is more important than sexual identity.
- Aromantics . People with such sexual orientation are only interested in sex, but emotions and feelings for them are not important. In most cases, they simply sort out random partners, because they are not attached to attachments.
Traditional Sexual Orientation
If an individual feels sexual desire exclusively for members of the other sex, it is considered that he has a heterosexual orientation. This species is dominant. Hetero-normal sexual orientation, which is considered correct. This is explained by the fact that in the world of animals homosexuality in its pure form is rarely seen, and in them the individuals of one sex in most cases do not feel attraction to each other, but, on the contrary, they show aggression in the struggle for a better partner.
Unconventional sexual orientation
This type of orientation includes homo- and bisexuality . In the first case, people are attracted to the individuals of their sex, and in the second - to the representatives of both sexes. Previously it was believed that people with non-traditional sexual orientation have psychological deviations. At the beginning of the 20th century, psychologist Havelock Ellis proved that homosexuality is innate, so this is one of the norm options.
Formation of sexual orientation
There are different versions of how orientation is formed, and many of them are wrong. Scientists have proved that sexual orientation can not change because of parents' wrong attitude, emotional shock and so on. To understand what determines sexual orientation, studies have been conducted on the formation of the fetus in the womb.
Scientists believe that 6-8 weeks after conception, a large number of hormones enter the embryo, which are important for the formation of sexual characteristics and the structure of the brain. The first part of them goes to the development of sexual characteristics, and everything that remains - on the configuration of the brain. If the amount of hormones is not enough, then there is a shift in sexual orientation. The main causes of hormonal failure: stress , illness and taking certain medications in the first 2 months. pregnancy.
How to determine sexual orientation?
Scientists and psychologists in America conducted research that gave sensational results. The definition of sexual orientation can be carried out along the length of the fingers on the arm. As a result, the following conclusions were drawn:
- Lesbians - the ring finger is longer than the index finger.
- Girls with heterosexual orientation - an unnamed and index finger has an equal length.
- Gays - the index finger is longer than the unnamed finger.
- Guys with a heterogeneous orientation - the length of the ring finger is longer than the index finger.
Lattice of sexual orientation
In 1985, Fritz Klein, in order to more accurately determine and measure people's orientation, proposed a three-dimensional scale that takes into account sexual experience and fantasy in three time periods: in the present, the future and the past. The Klein sexual orientation grid helps to see the variability of sexuality throughout life. Each of the three columns must be filled with values from 1 to 7 for each parameter. At filling it is necessary to consider that, since the grating does not imply asexuality, then the corresponding graphs can be left empty.
In most cases, they were shown on different scales, they are obtained unequally. They can be stacked on three columns (past, present and past), and the resulting amount divided by three. To determine the total hetero / homosexuality score, find the sum of all indicators for all graphs and divide it by the total number of filled cells, which can be 21 or less. Lattice sexual orientation includes such parameters:
- Sexual attraction - people, what sex cause excitement and attract physically?
- Sexual behavior is the sex of true sexual partners, that is, with whom there was physical contact: kisses, hugs and intimacy.
- Sexual fantasies - what kind of sex do people have that you imagine in your erotic fantasies?
- Emotional preferences - what gender are your friends with whom you maintain close communication?
- Social preferences - with which people do you prefer to communicate, work and spend your free time?
- Lifestyle - Do you mostly spend time with people who have different sexual orientations.
- Self-identification - how do you define your orientation?
Egodistonic sexual orientation
By this term we mean a mental disorder in which a person talks about his persistent desire to change his sexual orientation. The failure does not concern the orientation itself, but the need for a change in orientation, experiences and depressions. Statistics show that such disorders associated with sexual orientation are more often manifested in homosexuals who can not accept their attraction because of the onslaught of the public.
To diagnose this disorder, research is conducted on sexual self-identification, emotional features and interpersonal interactions, and clinical and psychopathological studies to exclude serious mental problems. In order for sexual orientation to be accepted, treatment is carried out aimed at increasing social and sexual adaptation. Different types of psychotherapy are used.
Celebrities with non-traditional sexual orientation
Since the society every year is more lenient towards representatives of sexual minorities, singers, designers, Hollywood actors with unconventional sexual orientation are increasingly acknowledging this. Let's pay attention to the confessions that caused a stir in the public:
- Elton John - first talked about his non-traditional orientation in 1976.
- Ellen Degeneres - in 1997 there was a magazine, on the cover of which was a leading photo with a confession.
- Tom Ford , in an interview with a well-known magazine, talked about his long relationship with the editor-in-chief of the magazine Women's Wear Daily.
- Stefano Gabbano and Domenico Dolce are famous designers, they have been in relationships for more than 15 years, but now they have other partners.
- Adam Lambert - never concealed his sexual orientation.