Fibromioma of the uterus is a benign tumor with a predominance of connective tissue elements. It occurs most often in women of childbearing age of 20-45 years. It can grow, decrease or completely disappear in the climacteric period of a woman. Fibromioma of the uterus can have small dimensions (similar to the period of 10-week pregnancy), and can grow to 30-centimeter tumors.
Multinodular fibroids of the uterus: causes
Multiple uterine fibroids can be caused by the following reasons:
- a woman who has reached the age of 30 does not have a history of delivery and breastfeeding;
- presence of abortions;
- improperly selected means of contraception;
- chronic inflammation of the appendages and uterus;
- stressful situations;
- presence of cysts in the ovaries;
- pronounced obesity;
- liver disease.
Nodal fibromyoma of the uterus: signs and symptoms
Depending on the size of the tumor formation, its location and the concomitant pathology of the female genital system, it is possible
- the following symptomatology;
- violation of the menstrual cycle;
- change in the quantity and quality of discharge: from meager to abundant;
- increased duration of uterine bleeding;
- pain in the lower abdomen and lower back, less often in the lower limbs.
Removal of uterine fibroids
On the average, at the age of 45, the greatest number of surgical interventions for the removal of the fibroids themselves and the uterus as a whole is noted, as fibromioma is characterized by active growth and is capable of causing endometrial pathology. The removal of fibromioma occurs according to the indications in the presence of the following accompanying symptoms:
- there is a rapid spasmodic growth of the tumor;
- the presence of endometrial hyperplasia, ovarian tumors;
- squeezing of nearby organs (rectum, bladder).
The removal of fibroids predominantly occurs by the method of laparoscopy, if a woman is not older than 40 years. Later, as a rule, the uterus is completely removed, since the risk of cancer development is high (sarcoma, adenocarcinoma).
There are other ways of destroying the ptagic tissues of fibroids:
- laser burning;
- by deep cooling.
However, the use of such procedures is not recommended for nulliparous women planning future pregnancies. It is also possible to use a non-operative method to remove uterine fibroids: embolism of the uterine artery (EMA), when the flow of blood to the myoma itself ceases. As a result, fibroids can completely disappear. The uterus with this procedure is preserved, but in most cases after its holding the woman will not be able to conceive. Therefore, EMA is prescribed only to women giving birth and not planning future pregnancy.
With a small amount of fibroids, conservative treatment is possible: the doctor prescribes hormonal or non-hormonal drugs, whose action is aimed at reducing the size of the tumor and its lack of growth.
Fibromyoma of the uterus: contraindications to removal with EMA
Removal of fibroids by the method of EMA has some contraindications:
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
- metabolic disorders in the body;
- infectious process in the field of pelvic organs.
Fibromyoma of the uterus: prognosis
In almost half of the cases after the operation to remove the fibroid, a woman has a pregnancy, which can proceed without complications. But more often a woman during pregnancy and childbirth may have the following pathological conditions:
- threat of abortion in 30% of cases;
- early discharge of amniotic fluid;
- intrauterine fetal hypoxia;
- violation of labor activity (for example, weak contractions).
In a third of cases, a relapse occurred within the next ten years after the operation.
It should be remembered that early diagnosis and timely treatment started allow the woman to retain the childbearing function.