Emotional burnout is a mechanism of psychological defense that occurs when pressure is long on the personality of stressors associated with a certain type of activity. A specialist of any profession is subject to this syndrome.
Emotional burnout in psychology
The phenomenon of emotional burnout (English burnout syndrome) was first described by the American psychiatrist G. Freidenberg. This is a gradual increase in the state of emotional exhaustion, leading to personal deformation of various depths, down to severe violations of cognitive processes and psychosomatic diseases. People with progressive emotional burnout are indifferent to their work and cynical towards others.
Causes of emotional burnout
Preventing emotional burnout is based on eliminating the factors that led to the condition. Causes leading to emotional burnout:
- intensive communication, interaction with people with a different psychoemotional field, everyone must be able to adapt and not run into a conflict;
- work that involves great responsibility (military, doctors), when the employee is forced to make important decisions in multitasking conditions and the life of others depends on this;
- rigid self-control if the work is related to publicity;
- a fast modern rhythm of existence with a lot of stress factors.
Symptoms of emotional burnout
The symptomatology of the syndrome at first is indistinguishable from the occurrence of such conditions as fatigue as a result of stress, it is similar to neurosis and depression. Signs of emotional burnout:
- general weakness in the body;
- frequent migraines and dizziness;
- a sudden feeling of anguish;
- problems with weight (obesity or dystrophic processes);
- decreased immunity and frequent respiratory diseases;
- problems with sleeping (insomnia or drowsiness);
- progressive pessimism ;
- evasion of work duties.
Stages of emotional burnout
Emotional burning out begins imperceptibly and is perceived as simply accumulated fatigue. There are several theories describing the stages of emotional burnout. The psychologist J. Greenberg described the types of emotional burnout in 5 stages:
- "Honeymoon" - 1 stage. The specialist is satisfied with his work, copes with current loads, overcoming stresses, but colliding, every time with the next stress factor, discontent begins to arise.
- "Lack of fuel" - Stage 2. There are problems with falling asleep. Lack of incentive and motivation, encouragement from management lead to thoughts about uselessness, productivity decreases, apathy "leans". Interest in work in this organization is lost. If the motivation is (for example, issue an honorary certificate), the employee continues to work hard, but at the expense of health.
- "Chronic symptoms" - the third stage. Workaholism leads to exhaustion, exhaustion of nervous resources. It is accompanied by irritability, anger or depression and a sense of cornering and lack of time.
- "Crisis" is the 4th stage. There is growing dissatisfaction with himself as a specialist, psychosomatic diseases are formed, working capacity is low, poor state of health.
- "Punching the wall" - stage 5. Diseases become chronic with frequent exacerbations with a threat to life (myocardial infarction, strokes). Threat of a career.
Syndrome of emotional burnout
Professional emotional burnout - there is no such specialty in which this phenomenon could not arise, favorite work sometimes causes apathy, unwillingness to go to it and a huge sense of helplessness. The more time passes since the onset of the syndrome and there is no taking responsibility for one's condition and the desire to do something about it - the stronger the professional and personal deformation of a person.
Emotional burnout of teachers
Syndrome of emotional burnout in teachers arises from increased loads and responsibility for each student. In each class there are "difficult" children, to whom a special approach is needed and this does not guarantee against the occurrence of conflicts. Emotional burnout of teachers also occurs for other reasons:
- high everyday intellectual loads;
- an imbalance between psycho-energy costs and material compensation;
- stress factors when interacting with parents;
- conflicts in the team.
Prevention of emotional burnout syndrome in the teacher's work:
- appreciate yourself as a high-class specialist;
- to be able to see value in emerging conflicts: what is it about, what is valuable emerged at the time of the conflict;
- reflection of one's state.
Emotional burnout in doctors
Emotional burnout from medical personnel can be dangerous for patients - it reduces the criticality to their actions during procedures and manipulations, cynicism, lost sympathy for the patient, as a person, and not to the "material" lead to negligence and errors, leading to possible death patient. Emotional burnout at work for a doctor is an alarming sign that it is important to review your attitude and if there are worrying preconditions to take preventive actions.
Emotional burning out of mom
The upbringing of the child is a tremendous spiritual and physical work plus a great responsibility. Emotional burning out of mom on maternity leave is a frequent phenomenon, it happens for the following reasons:
- hyperactivity of the child "not a minute of rest" - there is no time for rest;
- fixation on the child and domestic chores creates a sense of a vicious circle, a "groundhog day" of isolation;
- the child is often sick and endless trips to the doctors are very exhausting;
- lack of support and assistance from close people;
- the desire to do as much as possible home affairs, in addition to those that are specifically related to the baby.
What can be done:
- to distribute in the evening the cases connected with the family to the most important;
- start to sleep more, things will wait;
- to allocate 1 - 2 times a week time for yourself: cosmetology procedures, massage, visiting the fitness club - leave the child for the father or parents;
- track their emotional state and not "block" emotions, and start to express them.
Diagnosis and prevention of emotional burnout
Preventative measures and timely diagnosis of emotional burnout serve to timely track the disturbed psychoemotional balance and take steps to prevent or alleviate the condition. Self-diagnostics can be carried out with the help of questions that must be honestly answered:
- Do I like this work;
- I see myself here in 1,2,3 years (in the same position or higher);
- What am I striving for?
- What is important in my work?
- What is the benefit of this work?
- Do I want to develop further in this profession;
- What will change if I leave this job?
Methods for preventing emotional burnout
The long-known truth that it is easier to prevent than treat, so the prevention of emotional burnout is so important. If there is no possibility to visit a psychologist in the near future, we must start acting on our own. Emotional psychological burnout can be prevented or delayed in time, observing simple rules:
- correct organization of the regime of work-rest, the load must be adequate;
- Do not take work at home, everything should be done in the workplace;
- exercise several times a week, it is known that exercise increases the production of hormones of joy and appeasement (serotonin, dopamine);
- at least 2 times a year to change the situation, travel (you can always find budget travel options);
- full sleep is one of the most important aspects of productivity in work, constant lack of sleep leads to discontent with life and chronic fatigue;
- Reduce consumption of caffeine at work and at home, give up cigarettes;
- take responsibility only for their work, and not enter the position of employees and help all "needy" - carrying out the border and the ability to say "no";
- choose a hobby, a hobby - an excellent discharge for the brain, a change of impressions;
- if the work does not bring pleasure, honestly admit to this and start taking steps towards the work of your dream.
Emotional burnout - how to fight?
Emotional burnout - how to treat and cure it completely? It is important to note that this syndrome is not considered a disease, it can be attributed to a psychophysiological condition characterized by signs of nervous system depletion, neurosis-like state and depression already in the case when emotional (mental) burnout is already in full swing. On initial manifestations, you can use the following recommendations:
- to master the methods of self-regulation and meditation;
- undergo medical examination for the presence of hidden and chronic diseases that can change the psychological state, plunge into apathy and impotence (for example, thyroid gland diseases strongly affect the psychophysical tone);
- go to an appointment with a psychologist or start visiting psychoanalytic groups, where the state and options for solving the problem are analyzed in detail;
- to master a new profession (it is possible in the related field).
Emotional burnout - treatment
How to cope with emotional burnout if preventive measures did not help and the feeling of emptiness only increases? Do not be afraid to visit a psychotherapist to prescribe adequate medication. Exhaustion of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin will only exacerbate the condition, and enhance the symptoms of emotional burnout syndrome. The doctor prescribes individual therapy with medication: