Apperception in Psychology

Apperception is one of the basic psychological properties of a person, which is expressed in the conditional perception of surrounding phenomena and objects, depending on the experience, views, interests of the individual to certain phenomena.

The concept of apperception came from Latin, in the literal translation ad - k, percepcio - perception. The term was introduced by GV Leibniz, a German scientist. He proved that this process is an indispensable condition for self-awareness and higher knowledge. And he turned his attention and memory into it. Leibniz first divided the concepts of perception and apperception. By the first means primitive, unconscious, vague presentation of some content, and under the second - a stage of conscious, clear, distinct perception. An example of apperception can be two people, one botanist, another artist. The first, going for a walk, will consider plants from a scientific point of view, and the second - with aesthetic. Their perception is based on the characteristics of their specialty, preferences and experience.

The American scientist Bruner introduced the term social apperception. It is understood not only the perception of material objects, but also of social groups, that is, individuals, peoples, races, etc. They were drawn attention to the fact that the subjects of perception are able to influence our assessment. Perceiving people, we can be subjective and biased in contrast to the perception of objects and phenomena.

In Kant's philosophy, a new concept of the transcendental unity of apperception was introduced. Kant divided the empirical and pure (original) form. Empirical perception is temporary and based on the person's perception of himself. But the realization of oneself can not be separated from the awareness of the surrounding world, it is this judgment that the scientist expressed under the concept of unity of apperception.

Alfred Adler created the scheme, introducing in it the property of perception apperception, as a link in the life style developed by the person. He wrote in his book that we do not feel real facts, but subjective images, that is, if it seems to us that the rope in the dark corner of the room is a snake, then we will be afraid of it like a snake. Adler's scheme took an important place in cognitive psychology.

Methods for diagnosing apperception

The most well-known methods of studying the perception of personality are tests. They can be of two types:

In the first case, a person is offered 24 cards with symbols, specifies that these symbols are taken from myths and fairy tales, the subject should classify cards on the basis most convenient to him. At the second stage of the survey, it is suggested that the data of the 24 characters should be mentally supplemented with one more missing, in the opinion of the subject. After that, these same cards should be divided into groups: "power", " "Love", "game", "knowledge", with an explanation of the principle of division and interpretation of symbols. As a result of the test it is possible to identify the priorities and the value-semantic orientation of the individual. Stimulus material is presented with a game element, which implies comfortable testing.

Another type of study - a test of thematic apperception, is a set of tables of black and white photographic images. They are chosen taking into account the sex and age of the subject. His task is to compose story stories based on the image of each picture. The test is used in cases requiring differential diagnosis, as well as when choosing a candidate for an important post (pilots, astronauts). It is often used in the case of emergency psychotherapeutic diagnosis, for example, with depression, with a possible suicidal outcome.