What is PR and what types of PR exist?

As a phenomenon, PR owes its origin to England, where it emerged as a term for commercial purpose, designed to draw the attention of buyers to the offered goods. The word itself is an abbreviation, formed from the English word combination public relations, which means "public relations".

What does PR mean?

For a long time PR was used only as a commercial concept. The English sociologist S. Black defined what is PR as the interaction of art and science in the harmonization of society through the achievement of mutual understanding, built on truthful and complete information on important life issues. In connection with this interpretation, another definition of this concept appeared later: public relations is the connection with the public. It was later taken up by the mass media.

What is PR for?

Specialists who develop PR services and offer them in this peculiar market have a clear idea of ​​why PR is needed and what PR is. Its main goal is to form a positive image of the company for successful business promotion. These techniques are used not only directly, but also "from the opposite": it all depends on the types of PR used when conducting the relevant companies, but the result should be expected. Its components are:

PR and advertising - similarities and differences

In the opinion of the philistine, PR and advertising are one and the same. Experts argue that PR and advertising have their similarities and differences, which you need to know in order to be able to distinguish one from another.

  1. Conducting PR campaigns is not always directly, unlike advertising, is associated with the immediate promotion of goods or services, but pursues the goal of strengthening the company's image, which is a "delayed" advertising move.
  2. Advertising can be used independently or become an integral part of a public relations company, there is no reverse option.
  3. Unlike advertising, which is always paid, PR uses a popularization method. The media are involved in this process, but they do not receive payment from the person in whose interests the company is conducted.
  4. Specialists in public relations, which are called PR managers, do not welcome the purchase of a large amount of advertising time and believe that the PR skills consist in interacting with the media for the free formation of public opinion .

Types of PR

PR is multifaceted and diverse in its objectives, tasks and implementation. To effectively conduct a public relations campaign, you need to know the secrets of PR and PR rules, which are successfully owned by specialists of this profile. At the present stage, several of its types are revealed, for the clear delineation of which the "color characteristics" are used:

Black PR

The concept of black PR at the household level is clear to everyone. If we approach this concept more deeply, it is a reflection of the fierce competition in the market, its goal is to discredit competing firms for the most profitable consolidation in the market. The methods of black PR are resorted to if the company's affairs go unimportantly, and it can lose its customers.

Victims of attacks of black PR people are companies that have a solid reputation. The methods of fighting used are dangerous: the specialists of black PR can not only undermine the good name of the company, but also bring it to ruin or complete destruction. Such a practice has become so widespread in the business sphere that not only individual black PR people began to appear, but even entire companies that provide black PR services on a paid basis. All possible "fried" facts that can undermine the opponent's credibility and compromise him are extracted into the light:

White PR

Quite different is the white PR, which is used as a convenient opportunity for contact between PR participants and the target audience. In this case, the information is extremely positive, and only reliable information becomes public knowledge. A classic example of white PR is the launch of the Ford Mustang in mass production in 1964-65. Then the owner of the corporation D. Ford as a PR-action arranged a series of parties for potential buyers, where DJs came on brand new Mustangs, which fueled interest in the new car.

Gray PR

Incorporating elements of black and white, gray PR is used as a way of disseminating truthful information. Thus the reference to the concrete person or the company happens not always. The reason for the emergence of gray PR is the lack of reliable information on various issues of life. Among the purposes of its application are:

As an example of gray PR, you can consider the conflict of the buyer with the employees of the store, which is included in one of the popular retail chains. The offended person reveals the essence of the problem to the representatives of the mass media. Public proceedings give rise to a new flow of information, which, while setting the goal of restoring the rights of customers, damages the reputation of the trading network. Thus conflicts can arise, if it is possible so to say, in a natural way, or to have custom-made character.

This kind of PR is often used by representatives of show business, trying to discredit a competitor, to temporarily or completely eliminate it. A vivid example of its application is the wide coverage in the recent past of the conflict between Alla Pugacheva and Sofia Rotaru. The name of Pugacheva was also associated with the facts of eliminating competition from talented singers Olga Kormuhina, Anastasia and Katya Semenova.

Brown PR

As for the brown PR, it is correlated with the propaganda of fascist and neo-fascist ideology. It is believed that brown PR is an element of propaganda of fascism and misanthropy. But this definition of this kind of PR is extreme. Marketers consider it possible to use it partially to give the advertised product the direction of the military. To do this, use the form of servicemen, cadres of military exercises, military commands, etc.

Yellow PR

The well-known "yellow press" specializes in stories about scandals to draw attention to a particular person. Yellow PR is a complex of methods of juggling facts, when invented or falsified information is given as valid. In this case, a small episode can become rumors and gossip and appear as something important and serious. Given the obvious unscrupulousness of methods, in certain circles of representatives of the political elite and show business, he is always in demand. PR with a touch of yellowness uses a wide arsenal of techniques:

Green PR

As for the green PR, the color of life, it was adopted by organizations that promote the use of natural, environmentally friendly products and products. Here it can be considered as a green effective PR promotion of a healthy lifestyle, preservation of the environment. Talking about what a PR in green color can be, as an example, social advertising.

Pink PR

This kind is intended to give out what is desired for the reality, but not through lies or juggling of facts, but by illuminating only the positive aspects of the company's activities. Its image is formed by invented history, which step by step went to success, taking care of the well-being of clients. Advertising of the proposed travel itineraries is a good example of the life of pink PR. In advertising booklets, videos, on banners you can see happy people against the backdrop of pictures of exotic countries with palm trees, sea, sun and sand. Pink PR is built not on deception, but on the inconsistency.


Ability to present their dignity and achievements in the most favorable light is called self-promotion or self-piracy. To understand what a samopiar means, one can consider its basic techniques:

Viral PR

As for viral PR, it is widely used on the Internet and is based on people's need to share relevant or interesting information. Although it is believed that it began to develop actively about ten years ago, in life it has been used for a long time under the name "word of mouth". True, today its capabilities have significantly expanded, and to inform the community they use:

Its main advantages are:

The development of the economy and the expansion of business opportunities gave rise to innovative PR technologies, among which a significant place was taken by presentations and other methods of holding PR-companies. Any variety of PR differing in detail, have common goals and objectives, formulating which you can understand what is PR and its functions: