Thyrotoxicosis - symptoms

Thyrotoxicosis is a hyperthyroidism - a condition in which thyroid function is disrupted in favor of its active synthesis of thyroxine hormones T_4 and triiodothyronine T_3. In the creation of these hormones is involved not only the thyroid gland, but also the pituitary gland, its hormone - TSH.

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis may vary depending on how much the level of these hormones is exceeded. It is also of great importance that it caused thyrotoxicosis:

  1. Nodular goiter - with this disease on the thyroid gland formed nodes that may be poor-quality or benign; they are treated with substitution therapy by the use of synthetic hormones, and in more severe cases by surgical method or radioactive therapy; nodal formations arise because of the large activity of the gland, and therefore first of all there is hyperthyroidism, and after treatment - suppression of its activity, hypothyroidism is often manifested.
  2. Diffuse toxic goiter is the so-called Basedova disease, which has an autoimmune nature; in autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, thyroid hormones are excess which, because of their large amount, poison the body and cause thyrotoxicosis; this autoimmune disease can later proceed asymptomatically, but it begins, as a rule, roughly, with thyrotoxicosis.
  3. Subacute thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland, which can have a viral etiology.
  4. Overdose of hormone therapy - excessive intake of hormones in the body can be provoked by a function of the thyroid gland that is not impaired, but by an excessive intake of hormone-containing drugs.

Symptoms and indices of hormones with thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland

Physicians distinguish two types of thyrotoxicosis depending on the parameters of hormones:

The decrease in the hormone of the pituitary gland is due to the fact that this body regulates the functioning of the thyroid gland, including, with the help of TSH. And when the pituitary gland gets information that the thyroid gland is overly active, it reduces the flow of TSH into the blood. When there is hypothyroidism , the pituitary gland on the contrary, with the help of a large amount of TSH, contributes to its activation. Therefore, according to these three hormones, the course of thyrotoxicosis is determined and in general the thyroid gland is evaluated.

When it comes to autoimmune thyroiditis, the data of these three hormones require two more - AT-TPO and AT-TG. This evaluation of antithyroid autoantibodies: AT-TPO - antibodies to thyreperoxidase, AT-TG - antibodies to thyroglobulin. With autoimmune thyroiditis, in most cases an increase in these indices is found. Antibody indices help confirm the autoimmune nature of the impaired thyroid function. With thyrotoxicosis, these indicators should be periodically taken to understand what the true cause of the violation of the SCH function.

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can differ not only with the increase and decrease in the level of hormones, but also depending on the cause of this disorder.

For example, with Basedova's disease, eye symptoms in thyrotoxicosis are very pronounced in the last stages: the pupil does not hide behind the eyelids in the normal state and there is a pop-eyed effect.

With diffuse-toxic goiter and thyrotoxicosis, there is also a characteristic goiter-an increase in the thyroid gland, which can be felt like a lump in the throat in the first stages, and is further visible to the naked eye as an elevation.

Thyrotoxicosis in women is manifested by symptoms in the menstrual cycle - there is a violation, and there may be problems with pregnancy.

Because of the increased metabolism the patient experiences a constant appetite, but does not get fat - on the contrary, there is a lack of body weight. If thyrotoxicosis occurs in adolescence, then the body is formed with elements of infantilism.

In general, because of the accelerated metabolic process, hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperthyroidism has a youthful appearance, but these seemingly favorable symptoms have their price: first, it is impossible to take advantage of the increased intelligence due to excessive excitability and rapid fatigue ; secondly, the constant internal tension makes a person unhappy and unable to function normally, thirdly, the threat of disability suppresses, and periodic attacks - a sharp feeling of heat, a strong palpitation, dizziness, nausea and sometimes - loss of consciousness lead to the fact that a person is forced to ask about medical care.

A characteristic feature of thyrotoxicosis is tremor, excessive sweating , a feeling of heat, rapid heartbeat and being in a stuffy room is difficult. In winter, patients can easily dress, and open the windows in the room.

Because of the increased work of the heart, patients with thyrotoxicosis are often referred to the cardiology department, and if specialists do not know about possible endocrine disorders and treat heart or nervous system, it does not lead to the expected results.

Hormonal changes are reflected not only in the physical, but also in the mental state - the patient is irritated, quick-tempered, crying and in ordinary communication as the development of thyrotoxicosis becomes unbearable. This is not a sign of a bad character - after the compensation of hormones, his personality will again become the same.