Neuropsychology is a young and developing science. Without studying the processes occurring in the damaged parts of the brain it is difficult to help a person to undergo rehabilitation. More and more often children are born with various violations, and neuropsychology helps to identify this at early stages and draw up a correction plan.
What is neuropsychology?
The subject of neuropsychology is a relatively young trend, developing at the junction of neuroscience, psychology and psychophysiology. Neuropsychology studies the relationship between the functioning of the brain and mental processes, behavior. Basically, the processes of the brain with impairments resulting from injuries or diseases in humans and animals are being investigated. The main tasks of neuropsychology:
- Identification of the regularities of the functioning of brain functions in the interaction of a living organism with an external and internal environment.
- Investigation of brain functions and structures.
- Analysis of damage to areas of the brain.
The founder of neuropsychology
The first steps in this direction were carried out by L.S. Vygotsky, but significant contribution made AR. Luria and created a new science - neuropsychology. Achievements and developments A.R. Luria:
- created a classification of aphasic disorders;
- studied and described previously unknown speech disorders;
- studied the role of the frontal lobes of the brain in mental processes.
Methods of neuropsychology, allowing to identify violations (developed by AR Luria and his followers):
- Method of system analysis (battery tests Luria) - a complete study of mental functions
- Psychometric (North American) - battery tests Nebraska-Luria, scale Wexler.
- Individual-oriented (British) - screening, screening tests for further selection of individual studies.
Industries of Neuropsychology
Neuropsychology is rapidly developing, scientists believe that this science is the future. The main directions of neuropsychology:
- neuropsychology of development.
Neuropsychology of childhood - a promising and in demand direction, a timely detected violation will help to carry out a competent correction of the child. Pediatric neuropsychology studies the lateral asymmetry of the right and left hemispheres, the causes of school failure (minimal brain dysfunction, ADHD syndrome). After the violations are detected, a psychological and medicamental correction is performed.
The basis of neuropsychology is the study of neuropsychological syndromes. Clinical neuropsychology deals with patients with injuries of the right hemisphere and violations of deep brain structures, as well as defects of interhemispheric interaction. Basic concepts of clinical neuropsychology:
- Neuropsychological symptom . Violation of the functions of the psyche with local brain damage.
- Neuropsychological syndrome . A certain combination of neuropsychological symptoms due to disruption of the functioning of mental processes in a local lesion.
The principles of neuropsychology are based on the application of practical and experimental approaches, without this no science can justify their theories. Experimental neuropsychology studies the behavior of humans and animals inherent in certain local lesions. Thanks to the experiments of A.R. Luria was thoroughly studied and classified memory disorders (aphasia) and speech. Modern experimental neuropsychology studies violations of the emotional sphere and cognitive processes.
The directions of neuropsychology develop as a result of a practical approach. Practical neuropsychology is the section on which all other branches of neuropsychology are based. The main methods of work were laid by A.R. Luria and received the name "Batteries of the Lurian methods", which include the research:
- voluntary and involuntary attention;
- emotional reactions;
- auditory gnosis;
- movements when executing instructions;
- account systems;
- intellectual processes.
What is age neuropsychology - the answer already lies in the question itself. Each age period corresponds to its own patterns of mental development, and for a certain age, these or other disturbances of brain activity are characteristic. Age neuropsychology studies:
- neuropsychological syndromes;
- symptoms of violations of higher mental functions.
Neuropsychology - Exercises
In a normal state, the brain regulates itself, with a violation of psychological balance, the emergence of problems with the psyche, congenital regulation programs fail, so timely correction is important. Correctional neuropsychology for children and adults uses in their arsenal various exercises that are useful for brain activity, well-being. Neuropsychology - games and exercises:
- Mirror drawing . Prepare a sheet of paper, markers or pencils. Take pencils in both hands and start simultaneously drawing with your hands all you want: letters, geometric figures, animals, objects. The exercise synchronizes both hemispheres and creates a relaxation state.
- Drawing different shapes . The exercise is similar to the previous one, only to draw different shapes simultaneously, for example, the left hand draws a triangle, the right hand draws a square.
- Meditation is the concentration on breathing . Short inhalation and a long exhalation, with concentration on the tip of the nose. Relaxes, takes the brain to the level of alpha rhythm, the mind calms down, a state of mental equilibrium arises.
- Simulation of movements of various animals . "The Bear Goes" - the child is on all fours and raises his right arm and leg, eyes focusing on his hand, then the same movements with the left side of the body. "The Tiger Comes" - the basic position on all fours, alternately: the right hand goes to the left shoulder, the left hand to the right and so move around.
- Exercise "Elephant" . The ear is tightly pressed to the shoulder, the opposite hand is pulled out like a "trunk" and begins to draw horizontal eight in the air, eyes at the same time follow the fingertips. Run 3 to 5 times in each direction. Exercise balances the "intellect-body" system.
Neuropsychology - where to study?
The training of neuropsychology takes place on the basis of psychological or medical education, as part of acquiring a profession, a clinical or medical psychologist, a psychoneurologist, a psychiatrist. Higher education, where you can get the profession of a neuropsychologist:
- Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis. Specialization "Neuropsychological rehabilitation and corrective-developing training".
- St. Petersburg State University. Faculty of Clinical Psychology.
- St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute. V.M. Bechterew. On the basis of the faculties "Clinical (medical) psychology" and "Neurology" teaching the basics of clinical neuropsychology, neurotherapy.
- National Research Tomsk State University. Clinical psychology.
- Moscow State Institute. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. Specialization "Neuropsychology and neurorehabilitation."
Neuropsychology - books
Popular books on neuropsychology are written in plain language, and will be of interest to all those who are interested in the riddles of the brain and the psyche in general. A person is a whole universe, about how habits are formed, why strangeness in behavior arises in the course of these or other brain disorders - the masters who devoted themselves to studying the psyche in their works tell about this and many other things:
- " Fundamentals of Neuropsychology " Luria A.R. A training course for students of psychology, psychiatry and neurology.
- "The man who took his wife for a hat " O. Sachs. The author is fascinating, but carefully and with respect to his patients tells their stories of fighting severe illnesses of the psyche (neuroses). Each patient of Oliver is unique in his own way in his attempts to build relationships between the brain and consciousness.
- " The brain tells. What makes us human " Ramachandran Incomprehensible secrets of the brain, in this reader's work, answers are awaited to the questions: why does an autistic child write pictures that surpass Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo, or where feelings of compassion and beauty arise in the brain.
- " On the same wave. Neurobiology of harmonious relations "E. Banks, L. Hirschman. The book narrates about four neural ways, developing which a person comfortably approaches with other people and forms in himself calmness, energy, acceptance and resonance.
- " Brain and happiness. Mysteries of Modern Neuropsychology »R. Hanson, R. Mendius. The book-synthesis, combining psychology and neurology, abounds in methods of self-improvement.
Neuropsychology - interesting facts
The complex and multifaceted science of neuropsychology, when studying the mental properties and work of the brain of living organisms, constantly makes interesting discoveries, here are some noteworthy facts:
- The brain studies itself.
- During pregnancy, the number of neuron pulses increases 250,000 times.
- A person uses exactly as much brain resources in solving problems as much as it needs at the moment, so the myth about using only 10% of the brain is not scientifically confirmed.
- Human memory is not subject to linear thinking and logic, and to better remember information of any order it is important to create images, build up associative series - so the memory is trained.
- While smoking a cigarette, the brain perceives nicotine as a controlling factor in thinking and reduces the production of an internal substance that controls thinking, but as the load increases, the brain begins to produce more substance, outwardly it manifests itself by starting to smoke up to 2 packs a day (increases the dose of nicotine) - a habit arises.