Gallstone disease is a pathology in which stones are formed in the gallbladder and (or) in the bile ducts. Gallstones are formed from the basic elements of bile - distinguish lime, cholesterol, pigment and mixed stones. The size and shape of the stones are also varied - some of them are fine sand smaller than a millimeter, others can occupy the entire cavity of the gallbladder. For a long time, the disease can be asymptomatic, and the patient often learns about the presence of stones only after an ultrasound examination.
Methods of treatment of cholelithiasis
Treatment of cholelithiasis is carried out by both conservative and operational methods. However, you should know that after treatment, repeated formation of stones is not ruled out, if the main cause of the disease is not eliminated.
Let's characterize each of the methods of treatment of this disease:
- Medicinal - treatment of cholelithiasis without surgery with the help of chemical preparations (tablets). This method is applicable only for cholesterol stones, which can be dissolved. Bile acid preparations (ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid) or preparations of plant origin stimulating the synthesis of bile acids (extract of the immortelle sand) are used. Such conservative therapy is long-lasting: pills are taken at least 1-2 years. It is worth noting that these drugs are quite expensive and have many side effects.
- The ultrasonic method is the destruction of stones into smaller parts by means of a special wave action. This method is applicable in the absence of cholecystitis , the cumulative diameter of stones up to 2 cm and the normal contractility of the gallbladder. The crushed stones are then removed in a natural way, which gives the patient a very unpleasant sensation, or a medicinal method is used to remove them.
- The laser method is the use of a special laser, which is fed directly through punctures on the body and crushes the stones. The downside of this method is that there is a risk of a burn of internal mucous membranes.
- Cavity surgery is the most common and cheap method of treatment. It is used mainly in the presence of large stones, with strong and often repeated painful sensations, the presence of an inflammatory process. The gallbladder is removed through the incision in the region of the hypochondrium on the right side, up to 30 cm in length. Complications of this operation can be internal bleeding or the development of the infection process.
- Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a modern method in which stones are removed together with the gallbladder by means of a laparoscope - a small thin tube with a video camera. For this, several small incisions are made (not more than 10 cm). The advantage of this method is the rapid recovery from surgery and the absence of significant cosmetic defects.
Each of the methods has its advantages, disadvantages and contraindications. The choice of the most optimal method of removing stones from the gallbladder is carried out by specialists individually.
Exacerbation of cholelithiasis - treatment
Exacerbation of cholelithiasis (biliary colic) is accompanied by severe pain, fever, chills, dyspepsia. These symptoms appear most often because of the movement of gallstones. An acute attack is an indication for urgent hospitalization and, in some cases, an emergency operation. Actions are also being taken to relieve inflammation and relieve pain.