Lyme disease - rules for successful treatment

Lyme disease is one of the most common infectious pathologies transmitted by ticks. Cases of infection are regularly recorded in many countries of Asia and Europe, including ours, and the percentage of disability and mortality caused by this disease is not small.

What is Lyme disease in humans?

Serious pathology, which can lead to even a single tick bite - borreliosis. It is also called Lyme disease, first registered and described more than 40 years ago in the USA in the city of Laim. Then several patients were diagnosed with "juvenile rheumatoid arthritis", and only after a series of studies did the scientists establish the connection of the disease with the tick bite.

Tick ​​borreliosis is a natural focal polysystemic disease with a complex pathogenesis, many of which are isolated as independent diseases, and a number of symptoms are classified as syndromes of unclear etiology. When infected, the skin is affected, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system.

Lyme disease is a causative agent

Tick ​​borreliosis (Lyme disease) is caused by microorganisms belonging to the genus Borrelia (order spirochetes). These are long, thin bacteria of spring-like form, settling, mainly in the organism of ixodic mites, in the intestine of which the reproduction of these pathogens occurs. Pathogens are also found in the tissues of the body of cattle, rodents, birds, dogs and other animals.

Ticks - the main reservoir of infection, from them in most cases, people become infected. Bacteria with feces and saliva emitted by the tick come out, borreliosis can therefore develop even when the infected insect bites, and if the contents of its intestine get through the cutaneous microtrauma in case of crushing the parasite. It should be noted that the probability of disease depends on the number of bacteria that have penetrated.

You can "pick up" a tick in the forest, forest park, pasture, etc. These bloodsucking insects often wait for the "victim", clinging to a leaf of a plant, a shrub, at a height of not more than 1.5 m from the ground. Often they fall into the house with pets, clinging to their wool. The peak incidence is from May to September, when these insects have an active phase.

Lyme disease - stage

Lyme disease (borreliosis) with its typical development goes through three stages:

Borreliosis Symptoms

The incubation period of infection is often 7-10 days, sometimes less or more (up to 30 days). When Lyme disease develops, the symptoms at the initial stage are not always alarming a person and are forced to consult a doctor, many take them for manifestations of colds, flu. In addition, not all patients remember the tick sucking episode, sometimes it goes unnoticed.

Symptoms of borreliosis after tick bite

The brightest debut symptom, followed by Lyme disease after a tick bite in the case of erythematous form (in 70% of cases) is the appearance on the lesion site of a round or oval reddening zone, gradually expanding and confining itself to unconfined tissues with a bright red border. The size of the red spot can vary from 3 to 60 cm, which does not depend on the severity of the disease. The center of erythema is compacted, slightly pale or bluish. In the reddened area, mild soreness, itching, loss of skin sensitivity can be felt.

Other signs of borreliosis in the early stages may include:

In some cases, these symptoms are present without the appearance of redness around the site of the bite. After a few weeks, these manifestations are weakened or disappear, even if the disease has not been treated. Sometimes spontaneous self-healing is fixed. Otherwise, the pathology progresses, passes into a chronic stage or into a generalized form involving certain organs or systems. Further symptoms depend on the location of the infection:

1. In case of defeat of the musculoskeletal system:

2. In case of cardiovascular damage:

3. When the central nervous system is affected:

4. When the brain is damaged:

In addition, the complex of clinical manifestations of Lyme disease can include the formation of benign skin lymphocytoma - a single nodule or infiltrate or disseminated plaques. Often these formations, slightly painful and having a bright crimson color, are observed on the ear lobes, nipples and areolas of the mammary glands, face, genitals.

Lyme disease - diagnosis

Tick ​​borreliosis, the symptoms of which differ in polymorphism, is not easily diagnosed, especially in later stages. A reliable clinical diagnosis can be established only in the case of pronounced erythematous manifestation after a tick-bite, which is the main marker of the disease. Then there is no need for laboratory research.

To determine if a bitten tick is infectious, after removal from the skin it can be carried to the laboratory for examination. To do this, the insect is placed in a glass jar under the lid, where you must first put a piece of cotton wool soaked in water. It makes sense to do this, if no more than a day has passed since the tick was removed, the insect is alive and whole.

Analysis for borreliosis

Lyme disease in the second and third stages can be diagnosed by specific analyzes of venous blood, in which a certain amount contains borreliosis infection. At the first stage, it is rare to detect bacteria in the laboratory. The blood test for borreliosis can be carried out according to the following methods:

Tick-borne borreliosis - treatment

If borreliosis is diagnosed, treatment, first of all, is to take antibiotics, to which Borrelia are sensitive. Patients with severe and moderately severe pathology are hospitalized, and for mild cases, treatment is done on an outpatient basis. Drug therapy, in addition to getting rid of infection, must take into account the clinical manifestations, in connection with which such groups of medicines can be prescribed:

Non-pharmacological methods are also recommended:

Borreliosis - treatment with antibiotics

How to treat Lyme disease with antibiotics, according to which scheme to take them, at what dose, for how long, is determined by the stage of the disease and the predominant symptoms. Often, Lyme disease treatment requires 2-4 weeks, and such drugs can be prescribed:

Lyme disease - consequences

In the absence of timely correct treatment, the effects of borreliosis can be as follows:

Prevention of borreliosis

To date, Lyme disease can not be prevented through vaccination. Therefore, the prevention of Lyme disease is carried out in minimizing the risk of getting a tick on the body, which is ensured by:

Borreliosis - post-bite prophylaxis

That the disease borreliosis did not develop after a tick bite, it should be:

  1. Gently remove the tick , lubricate the bite with iodine solution;
  2. Seek medical advice;
  3. According to the doctor's schedule, not later than the fifth day after the bite, an emergency antibiotic prophylaxis should be carried out (often by means of Doxycycline or Ceftriaxone).

How to remove the tick correctly, you can see the video: