Many young mothers are worried when the fontanelle is overgrown in the child, because of this, some mistakes have taken root, which make it necessary to focus on this anatomical feature of babies. What deviations from the dates may indicate, we will consider further.
Rodnichok in newborns - what is it?
The structure of the head in small children is not the same as in adults. In the process of fetal development of the fetus, the so-called fontanels are formed on the head - neocoastened areas that connect the bones of the skull, which later overgrow with the formation of fastening, gradually ossified sutures. The children's spring is a dense elastic membrane of connective tissue that protects the meninges well from damage (so do not be afraid to iron, comb, wash the head of the crumbs).
How many fontanels a child has?
The total number of fontanelles in a child is six:
- the front (large) fontanel in the child - is located on the temechka, at the junction of the frontal and parietal bones;
- Back - is between the occipital and two parietal bones;
- the first pair of lateral fontanels (wedge-shaped) - between parietal, temporal, frontal and wedge-shaped bones;
- the second pair of lateral (mastoid) - between parietal, temporal and occipital bones.
What is the fontanel for babies?
Considering why the fontanel, it is immediately worth noting the role of these formations in the process of labor. Rodnichki make it possible for the cranial bones to be found one on top of the other, thereby reducing the size of the head and adjusting to the size of the mother's small pelvis (therefore, immediately after the appearance of the head, the head appears elongated, but soon the normal form is restored). This is necessary in order for the bones of the skull to move freely through the birth canal at the time of delivery, and the load and pressure on bone tissues and the brain were minimal.
Without fontanels, the likelihood of injuries to the head of the child and mother's birth canal would be much higher. In the future they take on other important functions:
- thermoregulation (removal of excess heat from the brain with increasing temperature);
- shock-absorbing functions - reducing the impact energy in injuries, falls;
- Providing an optimal space for normal brain growth in a natural rate.
What should be the fontanel for the child?
Dimensions of fontanels in children vary. The lateral are narrow, like seams of not more than 5 mm wide. Often, the babies born in time they are delayed by the time of birth or immediately after it (for two months) and invisible to the parents. The back fontanelle has a triangular shape and a size of no more than 7-10 mm. Most full-term babies are born with a closed back fontanelle, but the norm option is also its open state at birth.
The large fontanel of the newborn has the shape of a rhombus measuring approximately 2 by 2 or 3 by 3 cm. Normally, after birth, it is open, and then gradually closes. To control the rate of its overgrowing, a measurement is made at each physician's physical examination and the results are recorded on the card. But it is possible to do this at home, for which no special skills or tools are required - just put your fingers not in the forward direction at the corners of the diamond, but in the oblique - on its sides (the width of one finger is about 1 cm).
To what age does the fontanel overgrow the child?
If it is said about when the fontanelle grows in the child, the norm often touches the anterior fontanel. Bones that border the fontanel at the edges are soft, so with slight pressure, one can feel their slight mobility. Over time, more dense bone tissue begins to grow around them, so that soft bones grow stronger. Gradually, the connective tissue membrane is replaced by bone tissue, and the fontanelle overgrows.
This is how the processes of ossification proceed, but their terms can differ significantly for different children - from 3 months to 2 years. In most cases, a large fontanel closes in a child aged 10-14 months, and these figures are taken as the average statistical standard. Some mistakenly believe that when the fontanelle closes in the child, the skull growth ends. In fact, the connective tissue membranes are not the only space for the growth of the skull, and a more important detail for this is the seams, which remain open until the age of twenty.
If the fontanelle is more than normal
Some children are born with an anterior fontanelle, reaching 3.5 cm or more. This is absolutely normal if the baby is prematurely born or has a hereditary predisposition (one of the parents was born with a large fontanel). In addition, this may be a consequence of problems during pregnancy, associated with a deficiency in the mother's body of vitamins and minerals. Closure of the fontanel in children exceeding the standard sizes may take place somewhat more slowly. You need to see a doctor if the size has not changed at the age of 8 months.
Pathologically a large fontanel can be associated with such violations:
- premature birth;
- hydrocephalus ;
- a violation of the development of the osseous system and so on.
Spring is below normal
A small fontanel in a child at birth is often an individual feature of the skull associated with genetic factors. It should be borne in mind that due to the rapid growth of the brain and skull tissues in the first five months of life, it may increase somewhat. It is important to consider not only when the fontanelle grows in the child, and what are its dimensions, but also the circumference, the proportionality of the head, the general condition of the baby.
The causes of small fontanel related to diseases:
- endocrine disorders;
- blood diseases;
- metabolic and other disorders.
Why does not the fontanel grow in the child?
If the maximum average time is approaching when the fontanel should be overgrown completely in the child, and the rate of its closure is excessively small, it can signal the presence of pathologies:
- congenital diseases of the thyroid gland;
- rickets ;
- Down's syndrome and some others.
It should be understood that when the fontanelle overgrows in the child's time, it almost never is the only pathological symptom. It is necessary to pay attention to such possible manifestations as nervous excitability, sweating, poor appetite, indigestion, and violation of psychomotor reactions. To find out the reason can only the physician, having conducted certain studies and comprehensively assessing the condition of the baby, taking into account the constitutional features of the development of the parents in this period.
Do not overgrow the fontanel - what to do?
Many parents start to worry when the child is a year old, the fontanel is not overgrown. If there are concerns about the condition of the baby, it is necessary that he is examined by a pediatrician, an endocrinologist, a neurologist, a geneticist. An analysis is required to determine how much calcium is absorbed in the child's body. Further treatment is prescribed in accordance with the established diagnosis. Parents should not prescribe their own medicine and use popular techniques.